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## Współczesne Grodzone Inwestycje Mieszkaniowe w strukturze przestrzennej miasta na przykładzie Warszawy

### Justyna Sylwestrzak

#### Abstract

The paper presents a new type of multi-family residential investments which occurred in Polish cities after 1989. The subject of the paper was named as the Fenced Residential Investments (English: Gated Communities) and it was defined as the buildings and residential complexes having separated, closed areas accessible only to the residents of the investments as well as a specific form of ownership where each residential unit is a separate, private property while the common areas and the infrastructure existing within the closed area is jointly owned by all residents and is managed by a housing community. Other assigned to the distinctive features of the said facilities include the service-recreational infrastructure assigned to the investment and intended for the residents’ exclusive use. Moreover, and which is particularly frequent, the said facilities are equipped with video-monitoring systems and related services of security agencies. The purpose of the paper was the spatial and morphological analysis of the Fenced Residential Investments in respect of the impact of such further investments on the shape of urban fabric and public spaces of Polish cities on the example of Warsaw. Furthermore, the purpose included also the attempt to evaluate various forms of closed and fenced residential investments in respect of their impact on the city spatial infrastructure in order to make the defining of the preferred spatial solutions possible in result of the evaluation. Based on the statistical analyses of various parameters referring to over 300 examples of the Fenced Residential Investments (put into use between 1993 and 2007 in Warsaw) and the study cases of paradigmatic investments, both typical and extreme, it was proved that the studied facilities play a significant role in shaping the urban fabric (in particular the development areas) causing a range of both positive and negative (which are greater in their number) new phenomena. It was noted that new investments are characterized by a high architectural standard at a low spatial standard occurring very often at the same time. Due to their defensive spatial forms, the studied facilities contribute to the disturbance of the city spatial consistency and continuity as well as the degradation of potential public spaces to the role of wheeled communication routes. Which is distinctive on the residential areas developed by the Fenced Residential Investments is the lack of a proper number of service facilities, open spaces and greenery. Atomized, attractive group spaces with regulated access occur within the fences. Consequently, the pedestrian traffic is restricted while the vehicular traffic is increased within such areas, attractive investment areas are privatized and access there is restricted, social segregation increases. One of the three types of the Fenced Residential Investments which were singled out was considered as the most advantageous for the city space, i.e. the Residential Complex characterized by the peripheral development separating an internal yard which may be closed. This type my simultaneously shape public spaces creating a street frontage and guarantee safety and privacy to the residents within the area of the internal atria where the access may be restricted. Based on the analyses of three examples of foreign investments and the analyses of the phenomenon reasons, it was found that the spatial chaos contributes both to the fall of the residents’ feeling of safety and to the growing number of the Fenced Residential Investments. The implementation of a spatial order is, on the other hand, positively correlated with the city community’s increased control over the space and the increase of safety as well as the decrease of the need to live in fenced and closed residential enclaves.
Record ID
WUT403937
Diploma type
Doctor of Philosophy
Author
Justyna Sylwestrzak Justyna Sylwestrzak,, Faculty of Architecture (FA)
Title in Polish
Współczesne Grodzone Inwestycje Mieszkaniowe w strukturze przestrzennej miasta na przykładzie Warszawy
Language
(pl) Polish
Certifying Unit
Faculty of Architecture (FA)
Discipline
architecture and urban planning / (technology domain) / (technological sciences)
Status
Finished
Defense Date
07-01-2014
Supervisor
Pages
488
Internal identifier
AR-000563/D
Keywords in English
gated community
Abstract in English
The paper presents a new type of multi-family residential investments which occurred in Polish cities after 1989. The subject of the paper was named as the Fenced Residential Investments (English: Gated Communities) and it was defined as the buildings and residential complexes having separated, closed areas accessible only to the residents of the investments as well as a specific form of ownership where each residential unit is a separate, private property while the common areas and the infrastructure existing within the closed area is jointly owned by all residents and is managed by a housing community. Other assigned to the distinctive features of the said facilities include the service-recreational infrastructure assigned to the investment and intended for the residents’ exclusive use. Moreover, and which is particularly frequent, the said facilities are equipped with video-monitoring systems and related services of security agencies. The purpose of the paper was the spatial and morphological analysis of the Fenced Residential Investments in respect of the impact of such further investments on the shape of urban fabric and public spaces of Polish cities on the example of Warsaw. Furthermore, the purpose included also the attempt to evaluate various forms of closed and fenced residential investments in respect of their impact on the city spatial infrastructure in order to make the defining of the preferred spatial solutions possible in result of the evaluation. Based on the statistical analyses of various parameters referring to over 300 examples of the Fenced Residential Investments (put into use between 1993 and 2007 in Warsaw) and the study cases of paradigmatic investments, both typical and extreme, it was proved that the studied facilities play a significant role in shaping the urban fabric (in particular the development areas) causing a range of both positive and negative (which are greater in their number) new phenomena. It was noted that new investments are characterized by a high architectural standard at a low spatial standard occurring very often at the same time. Due to their defensive spatial forms, the studied facilities contribute to the disturbance of the city spatial consistency and continuity as well as the degradation of potential public spaces to the role of wheeled communication routes. Which is distinctive on the residential areas developed by the Fenced Residential Investments is the lack of a proper number of service facilities, open spaces and greenery. Atomized, attractive group spaces with regulated access occur within the fences. Consequently, the pedestrian traffic is restricted while the vehicular traffic is increased within such areas, attractive investment areas are privatized and access there is restricted, social segregation increases. One of the three types of the Fenced Residential Investments which were singled out was considered as the most advantageous for the city space, i.e. the Residential Complex characterized by the peripheral development separating an internal yard which may be closed. This type my simultaneously shape public spaces creating a street frontage and guarantee safety and privacy to the residents within the area of the internal atria where the access may be restricted. Based on the analyses of three examples of foreign investments and the analyses of the phenomenon reasons, it was found that the spatial chaos contributes both to the fall of the residents’ feeling of safety and to the growing number of the Fenced Residential Investments. The implementation of a spatial order is, on the other hand, positively correlated with the city community’s increased control over the space and the increase of safety as well as the decrease of the need to live in fenced and closed residential enclaves.
Citation count
2

Uniform Resource Identifier
https://repo.pw.edu.pl/info/phd/WUT403937/
URN
urn:pw-repo:WUT403937

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