Multi-frequency approach to vector-network-analyzer scattering-parameter measurements

Arkadiusz Cezary Lewandowski

Abstract

Vector network analyzer (VNA) is the basic measurement instrument used in the characterization of microwave and millimeter-wave electronic circuits and systems. Much effort has been put throughout the past three decades in improving the designs of VNA instrumentation and in establishing the principles of VNA calibration and uncertainty analysis of VNA measurements. Modern VNAs are a culmination of this long standing research, and are sophisticated, mature and reliable measurement instruments, commonly employed in the industry and laboratories. Recently, however, several new trends in the vector network-analysis started to emerge. These new trends result from an increased interest in the application of millimeter- and sub-millimeter-wave signals (frequencies up to 1 THz), rapid development of the nanotechnology, requiring characterization of structures with very large impedances (on the order of 100 kΩ), and an increased demand for large-signal characterization of microwave circuits. These new trends result, on one hand, in new concepts in the design of the VNA instrumentation, such as special VNA extension units, allowing the conventional VNAs to operate up to 500 GHz, microwave scanning microscopes, or nonlinear vector network analyzers (NVNA). On the other hand, these trends lead to new challenging demands regarding the measurement accuracy and its reliable and complete evaluation. The multi-frequency approach introduced in this work addresses this last issue. The principle of this approach is to account for the relationships between scattering parameter measurements at different frequencies. We show that this new approach allows to reduce by several times the impact of errors in the description of calibration standards, resulting thus in a significant improvement of the VNA measurement accuracy. We further demonstrate that the multi-frequency approach to the description of VNA instrumentation errors yields better understanding of their physical origins, leading to their compact description based on the stochastic modeling. We finally show that the multi-frequency representation of the uncertainty in VNA scattering-parameter measurements is essential when using these measurements in the calibration of time-domain measurement systems, such as high-speed sampling oscilloscopes, or nonlinear vector network analyzers.
Diploma typeDoctor of Philosophy
Author Arkadiusz Cezary Lewandowski (FEIT / PE)
Arkadiusz Cezary Lewandowski,,
- The Institute of Electronic Systems
Title in EnglishMulti-frequency approach to vector-network-analyzer scattering-parameter measurements
Languageen angielski
Certifying UnitFaculty of Electronics and Information Technology (FEIT)
Disciplineelectronics / (technology domain) / (technological sciences)
Start date24-01-2006
Defense Date13-05-2010
End date25-05-2010
Supervisor Janusz A. Dobrowolski (FEIT / PE)
Janusz A. Dobrowolski,,
- The Institute of Electronic Systems

Internal reviewers Jerzy Krupka (FEIT / MO)
Jerzy Krupka,,
- The Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics
External reviewers Jerzy Mazur
Jerzy Mazur,,
-
Honoredyes
Pages254
Keywords in Englishxxx
Abstract in EnglishVector network analyzer (VNA) is the basic measurement instrument used in the characterization of microwave and millimeter-wave electronic circuits and systems. Much effort has been put throughout the past three decades in improving the designs of VNA instrumentation and in establishing the principles of VNA calibration and uncertainty analysis of VNA measurements. Modern VNAs are a culmination of this long standing research, and are sophisticated, mature and reliable measurement instruments, commonly employed in the industry and laboratories. Recently, however, several new trends in the vector network-analysis started to emerge. These new trends result from an increased interest in the application of millimeter- and sub-millimeter-wave signals (frequencies up to 1 THz), rapid development of the nanotechnology, requiring characterization of structures with very large impedances (on the order of 100 kΩ), and an increased demand for large-signal characterization of microwave circuits. These new trends result, on one hand, in new concepts in the design of the VNA instrumentation, such as special VNA extension units, allowing the conventional VNAs to operate up to 500 GHz, microwave scanning microscopes, or nonlinear vector network analyzers (NVNA). On the other hand, these trends lead to new challenging demands regarding the measurement accuracy and its reliable and complete evaluation. The multi-frequency approach introduced in this work addresses this last issue. The principle of this approach is to account for the relationships between scattering parameter measurements at different frequencies. We show that this new approach allows to reduce by several times the impact of errors in the description of calibration standards, resulting thus in a significant improvement of the VNA measurement accuracy. We further demonstrate that the multi-frequency approach to the description of VNA instrumentation errors yields better understanding of their physical origins, leading to their compact description based on the stochastic modeling. We finally show that the multi-frequency representation of the uncertainty in VNA scattering-parameter measurements is essential when using these measurements in the calibration of time-domain measurement systems, such as high-speed sampling oscilloscopes, or nonlinear vector network analyzers.
Thesis file
doktorat Lewandowski.pdf 3.83 MB
Citation count*20 (2020-09-08)

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