# Knowledge base: Warsaw University of Technology

Back

## Study on the glycidyl nitrate polymerization reaction

### Julia Zuzanna Merchel

#### Abstract

The binder, in solid rocket fuels and plastic explosives, has two main functions: a combustible component, which together with an oxidant is a factor that allows obtaining an adequate oxygen balance and structure-forming component, which gives shape, adequate mechanical strength and cohesion of the entire mixture. At present, polybutadiene with OH end groups (HTPB) is widely used as binders for rocket fuels and plastic explosives. This choice is dictated by the very good mechanical properties of the composition after crosslinking. However, this polymer has some disadvantages, the lack of explosophoric groups makes it an inert material that reduces rocket fuel energy. An alternative to HTPB are energy binders, polymers containing energy groups in their energy chains, e.g. -F, -N3, -C-NO2, -ONO2. Such energetic binders cause the energy released in the material to increase. Poly(glycidyl nitrate), PGN for short, is a high energy polymer that in its structure contains an explosophoric group - nitrate (V). The polymer chain ends have hydroxyl groups, which is why the polymer can be cross-linked with diisocyanates. PGN is formed through the polymerization of monomer - glycidyl nitrate. The main purpose of the work was to optimize the polymerization reaction of glycidyl nitrate (GLYN) and to examine the basic properties of poly(glycidyl nitrate) (PGN) obtained under optimal conditions. Glycidyl nitrate monomer (GLYN) was obtained during engineering work as a result of epichlorohydrin nitration reaction and 20 reactions of glycidyl nitrate polymerization were carried out. During the polymerization, the type of catalyst and initiator, temperature, time and amounts of substrates dosed were changed. During the research it was found that less catalyst compared to the initiator, the higher molecular weight of the obtained polymer (PGN). This dependence is true for both 1,4-butanediol and ethylene glycol as initiator. However, it does not matter which initiator was used in the glycidyl nitrate polymerization reaction. The highest yield and highest molecular weight were achieved during the polymerization reaction with the largest excess of initiator relative to the catalyst. The optimum temperature for conducting glycidyl nitrate polymerization reaction is 0-10 °C. The longer duration of the glycidyl nitrate in polymerization reaction, the higher molecular weight of the obtained PGN. During the research, the scale of GLYN polymerization was increased (from 5 to 100 g) without affecting the molecular weights of the polymers obtained and their properties. In order to learn the basic properties of the obtained PGN, a number of tests were performed and the results compared with other binders, HTPB and GAP: GPC, 1H NMR, DSC, combustion heat measurement, viscosity measurement. The sensitivity of the polymer to friction and impact was also examined. The polymer obtained under optimal conditions is characterized by the following parameters: molecular weight 2018 g/mol, glass transition temperature -32,3 °C, onset temperature decomposition 194,8 °C, max. decomposition temperature 211,5 °C, enthalpy of decomposition 2846 J/g, heat of combustion 14458 J/g, viscosity 12100 cP at 25 °C, 860 cP at 50 °C, impact sensitivity 20,6 J, sensitivity to friction 110,4 N.
Diploma type
Engineer's / Bachelor of Science
Diploma type
Engineer's thesis
Author
Julia Zuzanna Merchel (FC) Julia Zuzanna Merchel,, Faculty of Chemistry (FC)
Title in Polish
Supervisor
Paweł Maksimowski (FC/DH-EM) Paweł Maksimowski,, Department Of High-Energetic Materials (FC/DH-EM)Faculty of Chemistry (FC)
Certifying unit
Faculty of Chemistry (FC)
Affiliation unit
Department Of High-Energetic Materials (FC/DH-EM)
Study subject / specialization
, Technologia Chemiczna
Language
(pl) Polish
Status
Finished
Defense Date
10-10-2019
Issue date (year)
2019
Reviewers
Paweł Maksimowski (FC/DH-EM) Paweł Maksimowski,, Department Of High-Energetic Materials (FC/DH-EM)Faculty of Chemistry (FC) Krzysztof Krawczyk (FC/CChT) Krzysztof Krawczyk,, Chair of Chemical Technology (FC/CChT)Faculty of Chemistry (FC)
Keywords in Polish
poli(azotan glicydylu), polimeryzacja, paliwa rakietowe
Keywords in English
poly(glycidyl nitrate), polymerization, rocket fuels
Abstract in Polish
File
• File: 1
praca_inż_Julia_Merchel_278382.pdf
Request a WCAG compliant version
Local fields
Identyfikator pracy APD: 30188

Uniform Resource Identifier
https://repo.pw.edu.pl/info/bachelor/WUTf8f2171920674e979598e6c13f09c84b/
URN
urn:pw-repo:WUTf8f2171920674e979598e6c13f09c84b

Confirmation
Are you sure?