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## Fouling analysis of membranes used in the filtration of liquid radioactive waste

### Katarzyna Biliniak

#### Abstract

Membrane processes due to the lower energy input as compared to other processes of separation are widely used in various industries. Despite the relatively simple mechanism of the membrane filters, there are some limitations of their application including a pore-blocking of membrane and decrease in efficiency of the process. This occurs because an organic or inorganic substance can deposit on membrane surface or/and penetrate into its pores blocking the permeate flow – the phenomenon called “ fouling”. Understanding mechanisms of fouling formation provide development of strategies to prevent and minimize membrane fouling. The aim of this thesis was to find the correlation between the zeta potential of the filtered solution and membrane fouling. The fouling was also investigated including such parameters as molecular weight cut-off, pH of the solution and membrane material. It was to verify if these parameters can be used as a tool during process design to estimate the tendency of a solution to membrane fouling. The scope of the thesis also included a literature review on process parameters and characteristics of the feed stream and membrane having affect fouling. The scope of the experimental study included the preparation of the solutions of polyacrylic acid and cobalt nitrate II. There were used three different molecular weight cut-offs of the acid: 30, 100 and 250 kDa and their solutions of pH 3, 5 and 7 were prepared. The physicochemical parameters of nine test solutions were examined including zeta potential. Then, solutions were filtered using two different membranes: PES (polyethersulfone) and RC (regenerated cellulose) with the same cut-off 10 kDa. Both membranes were tested with the goniometer before the filtration to evaluate their hydrophilic or hydrophobic properties. During filtration, the decrease of permeate flux was tested by the weight method. The experimental results clearly showed that zeta potential of the solution may be a research tool to evaluate the solution tendency to membrane fouling. The higher the absolute value of the zeta potential (colloids are more stable), the lower the fouling was observed. It is linked to the pH level of the solution – the lower pH, the lower absolute value of the zeta potential, thus the higher tendency of the solution to fouling. Also, the membrane material may influence the fouling – in the case of hydrophobic material (such as PES) fouling is more likely to occur than for a hydrophilic membrane (such as RC). The parameters described above are very important while designing the process on an industrial scale in order to avoid clogging membranes and lowering the filtration efficiency.
Diploma type
Engineer's / Bachelor of Science
Diploma type
Engineer's thesis
Author
Katarzyna Biliniak (FCPE) Katarzyna Biliniak,, Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering (FCPE)
Title in Polish
Analiza foulingu membran wykorzystywanych w procesie filtracji ciekłych odpadów promieniotwórczych
Supervisor
Ewa Dłuska (FCPE/DPKT) Ewa Dłuska,, Department of Process Kinetics and Thermodynamics (FCPE/DPKT)Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering (FCPE)
Certifying unit
Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering (FCPE)
Affiliation unit
Department of Process Kinetics and Thermodynamics (FCPE/DPKT)
Study subject / specialization
, Inżynieria Chemiczna i Procesowa
Language
(pl) Polish
Status
Finished
Defense Date
04-02-2019
Issue date (year)
2019
Pages
40
Internal identifier
DICHP-2846
Reviewers
Ewa Dłuska (FCPE/DPKT) Ewa Dłuska,, Department of Process Kinetics and Thermodynamics (FCPE/DPKT)Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering (FCPE) Maciej Szwast (FCPE/CIPE) Maciej Szwast,, Chair of Integrated Process Engineering (FCPE/CIPE)Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering (FCPE)
Keywords in Polish
fouling, procesy membranowe, membrana PES/RC, ultrafiltracja, potencjał zeta
Keywords in English
fouling, membrane processes, membrane PES/RC, ultrafiltration, zeta potential
Abstract in Polish
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