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## Screen printed reference electrode

### Angelika Dutt

#### Abstract

The aim of this work was to produce reference electrodes on PET foil using screen printing technology. They are used in potentiometric measurements as a key element of the analysis. During the review of the available literature, many types of electrodes of this kind were found. The majority of the advantages were demonstrated by silver chloride electrodes, the manufacture of which is not only safe for the environment, but would make the possibility to miniaturize many devices, which nowadays is a priority during their design or improvement. The use of screen printing as a form of production would make it suitable for great variety of applications, for example for the food industry, where the use of conventional glass electrodes is dangerous. In order to perform their function, reference electrodes must meet certain criteria. The most important of these is the stability of the potential during measurements, which allows the electrode to be used as a fixed reference point. In order to create the electrode with the best parameters, the imprint was made according to three schemes and using various pastes: commercial and hand-made. The electrodes: with a chlorosilver layer, without potassium chloride; with a separate chlorosilver layer and chloropotassium layer at different weight concentrations; with a layer of chlorosilver paste with potassium chloride at different weight concentrations. Potentiometric measurements were performed in order to examine the proper functionality of the electrodes. The electrodes were immersed in citric acid buffer of pH value about 2.2. Then saturated sodium hydroxide solution was added to the solution, which resulted in a step-by-step increase of the pH value. During the whole time of the experiment, the potential of the electrodes was monitored by computer program. As a result of the experiments it can be stated that the screen printing technology allows to produce reference electrodes. The electrodes, in which potassium chloride was not used, maintained quasi-random variability, with amplitude which allows their application in potentiometric measurements. The results of electrodes with the addition of potassium chloride up to a concentration of 25% by weight showed better stability of potential, especially when it was in the form of a separate layer. Electrodes above the 25% concentration by weight of potassium chloride did not maintain the constancy appropriate for reference electrodes. After analyzing the results in further stages of the research on chlorosilver electrodes, it is suggested to make a chloropotassium layer under the dielectric layer, which could reduce the reactions between the analysed solution and the chloropotassium layer. Additionally, in subsequent productions it is suggested to use only commercial pastes or mixing pastes at electric mixer devices. It may lead to the improvement of results for higher concentrations of potassium chloride, and certainly will allow greater repeatability.
Diploma type
Engineer's / Bachelor of Science
Diploma type
Engineer's thesis
Author
Angelika Dutt (FM) Angelika Dutt,, Faculty of Mechatronics (FM)
Title in Polish
Elektrody referencyjne drukowane metodą sitodruku
Supervisor
Grzegorz Wróblewski (FM/IMBE) Grzegorz Wróblewski,, The Institute of Metrology and Biomedical Engineering (FM/IMBE)Faculty of Mechatronics (FM)
Certifying unit
Faculty of Mechatronics (FM)
Affiliation unit
The Institute of Metrology and Biomedical Engineering (FM/IMBE)
Study subject / specialization
, Mechatronika
Language
(pl) Polish
Status
Finished
Defense Date
11-02-2019
Issue date (year)
2019
Reviewers
Grzegorz Wróblewski (FM/IMBE) Grzegorz Wróblewski,, The Institute of Metrology and Biomedical Engineering (FM/IMBE)Faculty of Mechatronics (FM) Marcin Słoma (FM/IMBE) Marcin Słoma,, The Institute of Metrology and Biomedical Engineering (FM/IMBE)Faculty of Mechatronics (FM)
Keywords in Polish
elektroda referencyjna, chlorek srebra, potencjometria, sitodruk
Keywords in English
reference electrode, silver chloride, potentiometry, screen printing
Abstract in Polish
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Identyfikator pracy APD: 31300

Uniform Resource Identifier
https://repo.pw.edu.pl/info/bachelor/WUT6de4846b11a34c62b2a208762912f310/
URN
urn:pw-repo:WUT6de4846b11a34c62b2a208762912f310

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