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## Technical solutions for the elimination of PM2.5 particles from ambient air

#### Abstract

The paper concerns the availability and effectiveness of local systems for reducing the concentration of PM2.5 present in the atmosphere, as well as the identification of sources of emissions of this particulate matter fraction, its transformations and its impact on human health and the climate. The basic processes of formation of particulate matter belonging to different fractions have been identified. Considerations supported by literature sources have been carried out, which show that the largest amounts of PM2.5 as primary particulate matter come from combustion processes, mainly in the communal and living sector. Other important sources of emissions of this pollutant are: power industry, industry and road transport. Natural emission sources such as dust lifting from dry regions, marine aerosol and volcanic activity are also specified. The analysis of data collected under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution showed that PM2.5 emissions in Poland and Europe are on a downward trend. Sources of secondary aerosol precursors (SO2, NO2, NH3, volatile organic compounds) and the proportions of particular sectors in their emissions were determined on the basis of data from KOBiZE. The fractional and chemical composition of dust influencing its properties was characterized. The influence of atmospheric conditions on dust pollution present in the air was determined. Admissible levels of PM2.5 in the air, valid in Poland and recommended by the WHO, were quoted. The direct and indirect influence of particulate matter on the climate, through interaction with solar radiation and change in the properties of clouds, was described. The health effects on people exposed to short-term elevated concentrations of particulate matter or low concentrations in the long term have been described and supported by literature. The carcinogenic effects of particulate matter and substances absorbed on its particles, e.g. PAH, were pointed out. The influence of particulate matter on the respiratory system, cardiovascular system and central nervous system was determined. The professional monitoring carried out by IOŚ was compared with cheap measuring devices (consumer air quality monitors) in terms of accuracy and development possibilities of the air quality monitors. The examples of local systems for the elimination of particulate matter from the atmospheric air, together with their characteristics, are presented. Their effectiveness was analyzed on the basis of various literature sources and compared with declarations on manufacturers' websites. It was shown that the effectiveness in reducing the concentration of particulate matter is currently not at a satisfactory level. An important role of plants in particulate matter elimination was also indicated and supported by articles on modelling this influence. Experimental measurements of the efficiency of a domestic air purifier as a local system of PM2.5 particles elimination from indoor air were made. It was shown that the device is characterized by high efficiency in a room with closed windows or unsealed window. When the window is opened, the cleaning efficiency drops drastically. The cleaning times were compared with the ability of the system to return to the initial state (relaxation). The significant influence of the external background on the measurements made in the building was pointed out.
Diploma type
Engineer's / Bachelor of Science
Diploma type
Engineer's thesis
Author
Adrian Okołowicz (FCPE) Adrian Okołowicz,, Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering (FCPE)
Title in Polish
Rozwiązania techniczne z zakresu eliminacji cząstek PM2.5 z powietrza atmosferycznego
Supervisor
Tomasz Robert Sosnowski (FCPE/CIPE) Tomasz Robert Sosnowski,, Chair of Integrated Process Engineering (FCPE/CIPE)Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering (FCPE)
Certifying unit
Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering (FCPE)
Affiliation unit
Chair of Integrated Process Engineering (FCPE/CIPE)
Study subject / specialization
, Inżynieria Chemiczna i Procesowa
Language
(pl) Polish
Status
Finished
Defense Date
01-02-2019
Issue date (year)
2019
Pages
53
Internal identifier
DICHP-2876
Reviewers
Katarzyna Dąbkowska (FCPE/DBBE) Katarzyna Dąbkowska,, Department of Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering (FCPE/DBBE)Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering (FCPE) Tomasz Robert Sosnowski (FCPE/CIPE) Tomasz Robert Sosnowski,, Chair of Integrated Process Engineering (FCPE/CIPE)Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering (FCPE)
Keywords in Polish
PM2,5, pył zawieszony, źródła emisji, zdrowie człowieka, klimat, monitoring, lokalna eliminacja, oczyszczacz powietrza
Keywords in English
PM2.5, particulate matter, emission sources, human health, climate, monitoring, local elimination, air purifier
Abstract in Polish
File
• File: 1
urn:pw-repo:WUT4a413e67d1e142928c48f2393f15e626