# Knowledge base: Warsaw University of Technology

Back

## Preparation of energetic polyurethane elastomers based on the nitrate derivative of β-cyclodextrin

### Rafał Piotr Wawrzykowski

#### Abstract

In every car there are airbags that protect our lives during road collisions. At present, nitrocellulose is commonly used in gas generators for airbags - cheap and easy to obtain high-energy material. Cyclodextrin is a cyclic cellulose analogue, therefore its nitrate derivative can be used as a substitute for nitrocellulose in mentioned gas generators. If we use polymers based on the nitrate derivative of cyclodextrin, the density of the entire composition will increase, which may result in the production of smaller gas generators. Polymers composed only of cyclodextrin joints do not have adequate elasticity of the whole structure, for this reason it is necessary to copolymerize them with compounds called elastomers. The purpose of this work was to conduct a copolymerization process in which the substrates were respectively nitrated β-cyclodextrin, containing 18 nitrated hydroxyl groups, hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and polybutadiene terminated with two hydroxyl groups (HTPB). In the first stage of experiments, research was carried out on an effective method of obtaining a nitro derivative of β-cyclodextrin containing only 3 hydroxyl groups. It has been shown that obtaining such a product is possible when the process is carried out at 3-5 ˚C using 100% nitric acid (V), the mass ratio of β-cyclodextrin to the volume of acid used is 0.16 and the conditioning time is 40 minutes. The obtained products were subjected to analyzes with the use of which the degrees of nitrating were determined. It was found that with increasing acid concentration the density of the products obtained increases. Obtained derivatives are not sensitive to friction and contain in their structure from 2.44% to 4.7% of water, which can not be removed in the drying process In the second stage of the experiments a copolymerization process was carried out, in which the amounts of added reagents were changed, in such a way that the ratio of the amount of NCO / OH groups in HTBP and HDI was changed. This resulted in 6 products that were subjected to basic analyzes. It was shown that the change in the ratio of NCO / OH groups did not affect the structure of the obtained elastomer, which was confirmed by FTIR analysis. Shore hardness was measured for the copolymers obtained and it was found that with the increase of the NCO / OH ratio the Shore hardness increases. The obtained polyurethane elastomers require further research to determine if they can be used in gas generators fuels.
Diploma type
Engineer's / Bachelor of Science
Diploma type
Engineer's thesis
Author
Rafał Piotr Wawrzykowski (FC) Rafał Piotr Wawrzykowski,, Faculty of Chemistry (FC)
Title in Polish
Otrzymywanie energetycznych poliuretanowych elastomerów na bazie azotanowej pochodnej β-cyklodekstryny
Supervisor
Katarzyna Cieślak (FC/DH-EM) Katarzyna Cieślak,, Department Of High-Energetic Materials (FC/DH-EM)Faculty of Chemistry (FC)
Certifying unit
Faculty of Chemistry (FC)
Affiliation unit
Department Of High-Energetic Materials (FC/DH-EM)
Study subject / specialization
, Technologia Chemiczna
Language
(pl) Polish
Status
Finished
Defense Date
31-01-2019
Issue date (year)
2019
Reviewers
Zbigniew Ochal (FC/CDSB) Zbigniew Ochal,, Chair of Drug and Cosmetics Biotechnology (FC/CDSB)Faculty of Chemistry (FC) Katarzyna Cieślak (FC/DH-EM) Katarzyna Cieślak,, Department Of High-Energetic Materials (FC/DH-EM)Faculty of Chemistry (FC)
Keywords in Polish
gazogeneratory, nitroceluloza, cyklodekstryny, β-cyklodekstryna, elastomery, diizocyjanian heksametylenu (HDI), polibutadien zakończony grupami hydroksylowymi (HTPB)
Keywords in English
gas generators, nitrocellulose, cyclodextrins, β-cyclodextrin, elastomers, hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)
Abstract in Polish
File
• File: 1
praca_inz_-_Rafał_Wawrzykowski_-_278437.pdf
Request a WCAG compliant version
Local fields
Identyfikator pracy APD: 30173

Uniform Resource Identifier
https://repo.pw.edu.pl/info/bachelor/WUT11970e8cd84548389722ee0e0f7e4159/
URN
urn:pw-repo:WUT11970e8cd84548389722ee0e0f7e4159

Confirmation
Are you sure?