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Analysis of thermal decomposition of selected electric cables in the aspect of aviation safety

Artur Kuriata

Abstract

Fires are a phenomenon that is quite common and dangerous for health and life. Their effects on the living body both during and after exposure can be fatal. With the emergence of aircraft with more complex systems on board, problems with fires have become more common. According to statistics, most of them are fires initiated by electrical systems. The aviation standards for this aspect are still very general. Decisions taken to change regulations are very often made after a disaster or after frequent incidents. They highlight the lack of appropriate safety norms and rules that are not adapted to the constantly evolving technologies as well as the increasing level of complexity of systems installed on board of aircraft. Modern passenger planes have electric sliding seats, entertainment systems, sockets where you can load portable electric accessories. Such an extensive system requires equally large amount of cabling and appropriate devices to ensure efficient and trouble-free operation. Electric fires, in addition to phenomena accompanying fires, are additionally irritating, which in the case of an incident in the air can have a huge impact on factors such as decisions made by the crew and the health of passengers exposed to exposure to irritating substances. Despite the passage of years, the subject of toxicity in the case of electric cables has not been studied so thoroughly enough to be able to computerize such processes, and then predict their impact on living organisms. The aim of the work is to present current methods for determining the influence of irritants on the psychophysical condition of people exposed to their effects and to draw attention to the importance of the toxicity issue in aviation safety. Several calculation methods have been developed, the aim of which is to reproduce as closely as possible the reactions of living organisms (rodents, humans) to harmful substances and their doses causing loss of consciousness or death. Each of the described methods allows you to focus on a different aspect of the impact on the body. The Cnt method, which is the simplest method, determines the effect of toxic agents as a specified dose over time, but we are not able to identify irritating effects using the FEC method. It assumes an immediate effect of toxic agents on the body, but it does not take into account the adopted dose, which is important in terms of long-term effects after the exposure time. This is allowed by the third FLD method described in the work, which focuses on the total dose taken. A big difficulty in building mathematical models is the lack of statistical data on the effects of individual substances on people, because this is possible only to a limited extent. A large amount of data obtained as a result of research on rodents and then comparing them to the human body, appropriate relationships are formed. In tests on fire toxicity, methods are necessary to calculate the concentration values of individual substances and the degree of smokiness. In this paper, two research methods are described, which were used to determine and measure fire power as well as quantitative and qualitative measurement of toxic substances resulting from the thermal decomposition of selected electrical cables. The cone calorimeter method according to the ISO 5660 standard allows to measure in addition to the concentration of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, the power of fire and smoke. It is a method generally used in the study of the flammability and susceptibility of materials to high temperatures. The second method is research using FTIR spectrophotometry based on ISO 19 700 and 19 702 standards. It allows qualitative and quantitative measurement of toxic thermal decomposition products. The FTIR spectrophotometer used in the study allows using the Fourier transform to simultaneously measure the entire spectrum of the test sample and is more sensitive than classical spectrophotomers.
Diploma type
Engineer's / Bachelor of Science
Diploma type
Engineer's thesis
Author
Artur Kuriata (FPAE) Artur Kuriata,, Faculty of Power and Aeronautical Engineering (FPAE)
Title in Polish
Supervisor
Andrzej Teodorczyk (FPAE/IHE) Andrzej Teodorczyk,, The Institute of Heat Engineering (FPAE/IHE)Faculty of Power and Aeronautical Engineering (FPAE)
Certifying unit
Faculty of Power and Aeronautical Engineering (FPAE)
Affiliation unit
The Institute of Heat Engineering (FPAE/IHE)
Study subject / specialization
, Lotnictwo i Kosmonautyka (Aerospace Engineering)
Language
(pl) Polish
Status
Finished
Defense Date
28-03-2019
Issue date (year)
2019
Pages
54
Internal identifier
MEL; PD-5064
Reviewers
Andrzej Teodorczyk (FPAE/IHE) Andrzej Teodorczyk,, The Institute of Heat Engineering (FPAE/IHE)Faculty of Power and Aeronautical Engineering (FPAE) Wojciech Rudy (FPAE/IHE) Wojciech Rudy,, The Institute of Heat Engineering (FPAE/IHE)Faculty of Power and Aeronautical Engineering (FPAE)
Keywords in Polish
kable elektryczne, toksyczność, bezpieczeństwo, kalorymetr stożkowy, FTIR, rozkład termiczny , systemy elektryczne, przepisy lotnicze, izolacje
Keywords in English
electric cables, toxicity, safety, conical calorimeter, FTIR, thermal decomposition, electrical systems, aviation regulations, insulation
Abstract in Polish
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Artur_Kuriata_Praca_Inżynierska___1035338_.pdf
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Identyfikator pracy APD: 32568

Uniform Resource Identifier
https://repo.pw.edu.pl/info/bachelor/WUT0232698d1b4f4d1ca4dd29e890ca7c6b/
URN
urn:pw-repo:WUT0232698d1b4f4d1ca4dd29e890ca7c6b

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