Application of multi-resolution 3D techniques in crime scene documentation with bloodstain pattern analysis
Elwira Hołowko , Kamil Januszkiewicz , Paweł Bolewicki , Robert Sitnik , Jakub Michoński
AbstractIn forensic documentation with bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) it is highly desirable to obtain non-invasively overall documentation of a crime scene, but also register in high resolution single evidence objects, like bloodstains. In this study, we propose a hierarchical 3D scanning platform designed according to the top-down approach known from the traditional forensic photography. The overall 3D model of a scene is obtained via integration of laser scans registered from different positions. Some parts of a scene being particularly interesting are documented using midrange scanner, and the smallest details are added in the highest resolution as close-up scans. The scanning devices are controlled using developed software equipped with advanced algorithms for point cloud processing. To verify the feasibility and effectiveness of multi-resolution 3D scanning in crime scene documentation, our platform was applied to document a murder scene simulated by the BPA experts from the Central Forensic Laboratory of the Police R&D, Warsaw, Poland. Applying the 3D scanning platform proved beneficial in the documentation of a crime scene combined with BPA. The multi-resolution 3D model enables virtual exploration of a scene in a three-dimensional environment, distance measurement, and gives a more realistic preservation of the evidences together with their surroundings. Moreover, high-resolution close-up scans aligned in a 3D model can be used to analyze bloodstains revealed at the crime scene. The result of BPA such as trajectories, and the area of origin are visualized and analyzed in an accurate model of a scene. At this stage, a simplified approach considering the trajectory of blood drop as a straight line is applied. Although the 3D scanning platform offers a new quality of crime scene documentation with BPA, some of the limitations of the technique are also mentioned.
|Journal series||Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738|
|Publication size in sheets||0.5|
|Keywords in English||Bloodstain pattern analysis, 3D scanning, Laser scanning, Crime scene documentation|
|Score|| = 40.0, 22-10-2020, ArticleFromJournal|
= 40.0, 22-10-2020, ArticleFromJournal
|Publication indicators||= 14; = 15; = 25.0; : 2016 = 1.326; : 2016 = 1.989 (2) - 2016=2.307 (5)|
|Citation count*||25 (2020-05-31)|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.