Sulfone derivatives enter the cytoplasm of Candida albicans sessile cells
Monika Staniszewska , Anna Sobiepanek , Małgorzata Gizińska , Eduardo Peña-Cabrera , Ismael J. Arroyo-Córdoba , Michalina Kazek , Łukasz Kuryk , Magdalena Wieczorek , Mirosława Koronkiewicz , Tomasz Kobiela , Zbigniew Ochal
Since our study showed that sulfone derivatives’ action mode creates a lesser risk of inducing widespread resistance among Candida spp., we continued verifying sulfones’ antifungal activity using the following newly synthesized derivatives: bromodichloromethy-4-hydrazinyl-3-nitrophenyl sulfone (S1), difluoroiodomethyl-4-hydrazinyl-3-nitrophenyl sulfone (S2), and chlorodifluoromethyl-4-hydrazinyl-3-nitrophenyl sulfone (S3). As the mechanism by which sulfones gain access to the cytoplasm has not been elucidated yet, in order to track S1-3, we coupled their hydrazine group with BODIPY (final S1-3 BODIPY-labelled were named SB1-3). This approach allowed us to follow the vital internalization and endocytic routing of SB1-3, while BODIPY interacts primarily with fungal surfaces, thus confirming that S1-3 and their counterparts SB1-2 behaved as non-typical agents by damaging the cell membrane and wall after being endocytosed (SB1-3 fluorescence visible inside the unlysed sessile cells). Thus greatly decreasing the likelihood of the appearance of strains resistance. Core sulfones S1-3 are a promising alternative not only to treat planktonic C. albicans but also biofilm-embedded cells. In the flow cytometric analysis, the planktonic cell surface was digested by S1-3, which made the externalized PS accessible to AnnexinV binding and PI input (accidental cell death ACD). The occurrence of ACD as well as apoptosis (crescent-shaped nuclei) and anoikis of sessile cells (regulated cell death by 100%-reduction in attachment to epithelium) was assessed through monitoring the AO/PI/HO342 markers. CLSM revealed the invasion of S1-3 and SB1-3 in C. albicans without inducing cell lysis. This was a novel approach in which QCM-D was used for real-time in situ detection of viscoelastic changes in the C. albicans biofilm, and its interaction with S1 as a representative of the sulfones tested. S1 (not toxic in vivo) is a potent fungicidal agent against C. albicans and could be administered to treat invasive candidiasis as a monotherapy or in combination with antifungal agents of reference to treat C. albicans infections.
|Journal series||European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0223-5234, e-ISSN 1768-3254|
|Publication size in sheets||0.75|
|Keywords in English||BODIPY-Labelled sulfones, Antifungals, Endocytosis, Regulated cell death, Biofilm viscoelastic changes|
|ASJC Classification||; ; ;|
|Score||= 140.0, 01-07-2020, ArticleFromJournal|
|Publication indicators||= 0; : 2018 = 1.464; : 2018 = 4.833 (2) - 2018=4.666 (5)|
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