Indoor Localisation Based on GSM Signals: Multistorey Building Study

Rafał Górak , Marcin Luckner , Michał Okulewicz , Joanna Porter-Sobieraj , Piotr Wawrzyniak


Among the accurate indoor localisation systems that are using WiFi, Bluetooth, or infrared technologies, the ones that are based on the GSM rely on a stable external infrastructure that can be used even in an emergency. This paper presents an accurate GSM indoor localisation system that achieves a median error of 4.39 metres in horizontal coordinates and up to 64 percent accuracy in floor prediction (for 84 percent of cases the floor prediction is mistaken by not more than a single floor). The test and reference measurements were made inside a six-floor academic building, with an irregular shape, whose dimensions are around 50 metres by 70 metres. The localisation algorithm uses GSM signal readings from the 7 strongest cells available in the GSM standard (or fewer, if fewer than 7 are available). We estimate the location by a three-step method. Firstly, we propose a point localisation solution (i.e., localisation based on only one measurement). Then, by applying the central tendency filters and the Multilayer Perceptron, we build a localisation system that uses a sequence of estimations of current and past locations. We also discuss major accuracy factors such as the number of observed signals or the types of spaces in the building.
Author Rafał Górak (FMIS / DFG)
Rafał Górak,,
- Department of Foundations Geometry
, Marcin Luckner (FMIS / DACSCM)
Marcin Luckner,,
- Department of Applied Computer Science and Computation Methods
, Michał Okulewicz (FMIS / DACSCM)
Michał Okulewicz,,
- Department of Applied Computer Science and Computation Methods
, Joanna Porter-Sobieraj (FMIS / DACSCM)
Joanna Porter-Sobieraj,,
- Department of Applied Computer Science and Computation Methods
, Piotr Wawrzyniak
Piotr Wawrzyniak,,
Journal seriesMobile Information Systems, ISSN 1574-017X
Issue year2016
Publication size in sheets0.8
Keywords in EnglishIndoor Localisation, Fingerprinting, GSM Localisation, Mobile Computing
ASJC Classification1705 Computer Networks and Communications; 1706 Computer Science Applications
Abstract in PolishOpracowano system lokalizacji wewnątrz budynku bazujący na sygnałach GSM. Badania przeprowadzano korzystając ze zwykłego telefonu komórkowego. W sześciopiętrowym budynku akademickim o wymiarach 50 na 70 metrów uzyskano średni błąd lokalizacji horyzontalnej wielkości 4.39 metra. Detekcja piętra odbywała się ze skutecznością 64 procent, przy czym dla 84 procent obserwacji błąd był nie większy niż jedno piętro.
Languageen angielski
Score (nominal)25
Score sourcejournalList
ScoreMinisterial score = 20.0, 30-01-2020, ArticleFromJournal
Ministerial score (2013-2016) = 25.0, 30-01-2020, ArticleFromJournal
Publication indicators WoS Citations = 3; Scopus Citations = 4; Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2016 = 0.509; WoS Impact Factor: 2016 = 0.849 (2) - 2016=1.0 (5)
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* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.
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