Ultrasonographic and anatomical examination of normal thyroid and internal parathyroid glands in goats
Filip Pankowski , Sławomir Paśko , Joanna Bonecka , Olga Szaluś-Jordanow , Marcin Mickiewicz , Agata Moroz , Bartłomiej J. Bartyzel
Ultrasonographic examination of the normal thyroid and parathyroid glands has been described for humans and many animal species. However, similar reports for goats are still missing. The aim of the study was to present ultrasound features of the normal thyroid and internal parathyroid glands in goats with the determination of their dimensions and volume, followed by a comparison of the results to the gross examination. Seventy-Two goats were used in the study. The echostructure and echogenicity of the thyroid and parathyroid glands were assessed. The length, width and height of the thyroid and the length and width of the parathyroid glands were measured. The thyroid volume was calculated using the ellipsoid formula, basing on the ultrasonographic dimensions. Size and volume of the dissected thyroid glands were established grossly, followed by a histological examination. In order to accurately describe the anatomy of the thyroid, new anatomical terminology characterizing this gland was proposed. The mean dimensions of the thyroid lobes were 30.2 x 10.5 x 6.3 mm. There were no statistically significant differences between the right and left lobe. Parathyroid glands measured an average of 3.6 x 2.4 mm. The percentage Root Mean Square Error between the results of ultrasonographic and gross examination was 16.73%, 20.65% and 17.01% for thyroid length, width and height, respectively, and 46.30% for volume. In order to obtain more precise calculation of the thyroid volume, a modified correction factor for the ellipsoid formula was introduced. For the first time, the normal ultrasonographic characteristics and dimensions of the caprine thyroid and internal parathyroid glands were presented. The results may serve as a radiological reference and be the basis for further research.
|Journal series||PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203|
|ASJC Classification||; ;|
|License||Journal (articles only); published final; ; after publication|
|Score||= 100.0, 09-09-2020, ArticleFromJournal|
|Publication indicators||= 0; = 0; : 2017 = 1.111; : 2018 = 2.776 (2) - 2018=3.337 (5)|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.