Ultrasonographic and anatomical examination of normal thyroid and internal parathyroid glands in goats

Filip Pankowski , Sławomir Paśko , Joanna Bonecka , Olga Szaluś-Jordanow , Marcin Mickiewicz , Agata Moroz , Bartłomiej J. Bartyzel

Abstract

Ultrasonographic examination of the normal thyroid and parathyroid glands has been described for humans and many animal species. However, similar reports for goats are still missing. The aim of the study was to present ultrasound features of the normal thyroid and internal parathyroid glands in goats with the determination of their dimensions and volume, followed by a comparison of the results to the gross examination. Seventy-Two goats were used in the study. The echostructure and echogenicity of the thyroid and parathyroid glands were assessed. The length, width and height of the thyroid and the length and width of the parathyroid glands were measured. The thyroid volume was calculated using the ellipsoid formula, basing on the ultrasonographic dimensions. Size and volume of the dissected thyroid glands were established grossly, followed by a histological examination. In order to accurately describe the anatomy of the thyroid, new anatomical terminology characterizing this gland was proposed. The mean dimensions of the thyroid lobes were 30.2 x 10.5 x 6.3 mm. There were no statistically significant differences between the right and left lobe. Parathyroid glands measured an average of 3.6 x 2.4 mm. The percentage Root Mean Square Error between the results of ultrasonographic and gross examination was 16.73%, 20.65% and 17.01% for thyroid length, width and height, respectively, and 46.30% for volume. In order to obtain more precise calculation of the thyroid volume, a modified correction factor for the ellipsoid formula was introduced. For the first time, the normal ultrasonographic characteristics and dimensions of the caprine thyroid and internal parathyroid glands were presented. The results may serve as a radiological reference and be the basis for further research.

Author Filip Pankowski - Faculty of Veterinary Medicine [Warsaw University of Life Science (SGGW)]
Filip Pankowski,,
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, Sławomir Paśko (FM / IMPh)
Sławomir Paśko,,
- The Institute of Micromechanics and Photonics
, Joanna Bonecka - Faculty of Veterinary Medicine [Warsaw University of Life Science (SGGW)]
Joanna Bonecka,,
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, Olga Szaluś-Jordanow - Faculty of Veterinary Medicine [Warsaw University of Life Science (SGGW)]
Olga Szaluś-Jordanow,,
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, Marcin Mickiewicz - Faculty of Veterinary Medicine [Warsaw University of Life Science (SGGW)]
Marcin Mickiewicz,,
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, Agata Moroz - Faculty of Veterinary Medicine [Warsaw University of Life Science (SGGW)]
Agata Moroz,,
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, Bartłomiej J. Bartyzel - Faculty of Veterinary Medicine [Warsaw University of Life Science (SGGW)]
Bartłomiej J. Bartyzel,,
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Journal seriesPLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203
Issue year2020
Vol15
No5
Article number0233685
ASJC Classification2700 General Medicine; 1100 General Agricultural and Biological Sciences; 1300 General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
DOIDOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0233685
URL https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233685
Languageen angielski
LicenseJournal (articles only); published final; Uznanie Autorstwa (CC-BY); after publication
File
ultrasonographic.pdf 889.7 KB
Score (nominal)100
Score sourcejournalList
ScoreMinisterial score = 100.0, 09-09-2020, ArticleFromJournal
Publication indicators Scopus Citations = 0; WoS Citations = 0; Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2017 = 1.111; WoS Impact Factor: 2018 = 2.776 (2) - 2018=3.337 (5)
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