Safety and Impact on Training of the Influenza Vaccines in Elite Athletes Participating in the Rio 2016 Olympics

Jarosław Krzywański , Ernest Kuchar , Andrzej Pokrywka , Tomasz Mikulski , Iwona Pilchowska , Marcel Młyńczak , Hubert Krysztofiak , Janusz Jurczyk , Andrzej Ziemba , Aneta Nitsch-Osuch


Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety and tolerance of influenza vaccines for the northern and southern hemispheres in Polish elite athletes participating in the Rio 2016 Olympics.

Design: Prospective, observational, cohort study. Setting: Institutional level.

Participants: Ninety-seven athletes vaccinated only with the northern hemisphere vaccine; 98 athletes received the southern hemisphere vaccine alone, whereas 39 athletes were vaccinated with both vaccines.

Interventions: The athletes were vaccinated with a trivalent, inactivated influenza vaccine recommended for the northern hemisphere 2015/2016 and then with the vaccine recommended for the southern hemisphere 2016. Athletes kept a diary of adverse events and effects (if any) on training for 6 days after vaccination.

Main Outcome Measures: The percentage of general and local adverse events, number of lost or modified training sessions.

Results: Significantly more local adverse events (pain and redness) were found in the group immunized with the vaccine for the northern hemisphere. There were no differences in the frequency of general adverse events and influence on training between groups. Of total 273 athletes who had 1911 training days during 6 days after vaccination, 6 athletes (2.2%) lost 13 training days (0.7%) and 16 athletes (5.9%) had to modify 34 (1.7%) training days within first 2 days after vaccination.

Conclusions: Athletes tolerated influenza immunization well. If they are going to travel to the other hemisphere during the influenza season, the use of the second influenza vaccine should be advised. Athletes should anticipate modification of trainings for 2 days after vaccination.
Author Jarosław Krzywański
Jarosław Krzywański,,
, Ernest Kuchar
Ernest Kuchar,,
, Andrzej Pokrywka
Andrzej Pokrywka,,
, Tomasz Mikulski
Tomasz Mikulski,,
, Iwona Pilchowska
Iwona Pilchowska,,
, Marcel Młyńczak (FM / IMBE)
Marcel Młyńczak,,
- The Institute of Metrology and Biomedical Engineering
, Hubert Krysztofiak
Hubert Krysztofiak,,
, Janusz Jurczyk
Janusz Jurczyk,,
, Andrzej Ziemba
Andrzej Ziemba,,
, Aneta Nitsch-Osuch
Aneta Nitsch-Osuch,,
Journal seriesClinical Journal of Sport Medicine, ISSN 1050-642X, e-ISSN 1536-3724
Issue year2020
Publication size in sheets0.5
Keywords in Englishinfluenza vaccination, athletes, safety, tolerance, training
ASJC Classification2732 Orthopedics and Sports Medicine; 3612 Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
Languageen angielski
Score (nominal)70
Score sourcejournalList
ScoreMinisterial score = 70.0, 17-04-2020, ArticleFromJournal
Publication indicators Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2018 = 0.976; WoS Impact Factor: 2018 = 2.702 (2) - 2018=2.793 (5)
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