Surface sintering of tungsten powder targets designed by electromagnetic discharge: A novel approach for film synthesis in magnetron sputtering

Bartosz Wicher , Krzysztof Zdunek , Rafał Chodun , Samih Haj Ibrahim , Michał Kubiś , A. Lachowski , Krystian Bogumił Król , Jakub Jaroszewicz , R. Minikayev , K. Nowakowska–Langier


A three-dimensional (3D) sintering method of bulk magnetron targets has been developed recently. However, the use of bulk target had the following limitations: constrained geometry, limited chemical-phase composition, small size and cost-effectiveness. Thus a novel approach of surface sintering (2D) was arranged by a method of electromagnetic discharge evolution without applying any mechanical press. In the proposed method, the internal energy of pulsed plasma flux (~102.3 J) was dissipated at a tungsten (W) powder interface, therefore providing a form of sintered body with a density of 9.24–14.21 g/cm3 in the crystal structure of (α)-W. The morphology view indicates that, for the most part of sinters, only a subsurface (< 100 nm) was well-consolidated, which was in accordance with an almost fourfold increase in thermal diffusivity there, as showed the results of laser flash analysis. Subsequently, the decrease in mean porosity distribution (Vv) from 42.4% to 27.1% in consolidated surface was confirmed by using the microcomputed tomography (μCT) reconstruction. The (2D) sintered target was then used in the synthesis of pure metallic films by gas injection magnetron sputtering. As a result, a conductive (β)-W phase was recognized (103–405 μΩ cm), giving a promising hope for spintronic device applications.
Author Bartosz Wicher (FMSE / DSE)
Bartosz Wicher,,
- Division of Surface Engineering
, Krzysztof Zdunek (FMSE / DSE)
Krzysztof Zdunek,,
- Division of Surface Engineering
, Rafał Chodun (FMSE / DSE)
Rafał Chodun,,
- Division of Surface Engineering
, Samih Haj Ibrahim (FMSE / DMD)
Samih Haj Ibrahim,,
- Division of Materials Design
, Michał Kubiś (FPAE / IHE)
Michał Kubiś,,
- The Institute of Heat Engineering
, A. Lachowski - [High Pressure Research Center of the Polish Academy of Sciences]
A. Lachowski,,
, Krystian Bogumił Król (FEIT / MO)
Krystian Bogumił Król,,
- The Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics
, Jakub Jaroszewicz (FMSE / DMD)
Jakub Jaroszewicz,,
- Division of Materials Design
, R. Minikayev - [Institute of Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences]
R. Minikayev,,
, K. Nowakowska–Langier
K. Nowakowska–Langier,,
Journal seriesMaterials & Design, [Materials and Design], ISSN 0264-1275, e-ISSN 1873-4197, [0261-3069]
Issue year2020
Volin press
Article number108634
Keywords in EnglishSurface sintering; Thermal diffusivity; Powder targets; Tungsten thin film synthesis; Metastable β-W phase nucleation; Electrical resistivity
ASJC Classification2210 Mechanical Engineering; 2211 Mechanics of Materials; 2500 General Materials Science
Languageen angielski
Score (nominal)140
Score sourcejournalList
ScoreMinisterial score = 140.0, 20-09-2020, ArticleFromJournal
Publication indicators Scopus Citations = 0; WoS Citations = 0; Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2017 = 2.424; WoS Impact Factor: 2018 = 5.77 (2) - 2018=5.83 (5)
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