Lightweight TRNG Based on Multiphase Timing of Bistables

Piotr Z. Wieczorek


The paper presents a concept of a True Random Number Generator (TRNG) that utilizes phase noise of a pair of ring oscillators (ROs) to increase the variance of the initial condition of a bistable. For this purpose a special TRNG D-latch architecture (TDL) has been proposed, which can either operate in the oscillatory ring-oscillator mode or the nearly-metastable mode. The RO mode increases the probability of the nearly metastable operation of the TDL, which in turn increases the mean value and variance of the resolve time. Moreover, due to the oscillatory nature of the TDL metastability, the resolve time can be easily measured and used for further randomness harvesting in the TRNG. The proposed TRNG uses a pair of TDLs to reduce sensitivity to process or temperature variation, whereas TDLs' individual resolve time, their resolve time difference and logical state contribute to randomness. In the article, the impact of the devices' imbalance (tolerance) resulting from process variation on the resultant entropy is also explored. The proposed TRNG based on TDLs is scalable and has been implemented in modern CPLD and FPGA devices whereas the bit rate reached up to 1 Mbit. The article also discusses theoretical issues related to a transformation of phase and resolve time probability density functions and their influence on TRNG parameters.
Author Piotr Z. Wieczorek (FEIT / PE)
Piotr Z. Wieczorek,,
- The Institute of Electronic Systems
Journal seriesIEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I-Regular Papers, ISSN 1549-8328
Issue year2016
Publication size in sheets0.55
Keywords in EnglishCPLD FPGA TRNG metastability randomness
ASJC Classification2208 Electrical and Electronic Engineering
ProjectResearch on measurement, circuit and signal theory and electronic circuits and systems. Project leader: Starecki Tomasz, , Phone: +48 22 234 7744; +48 22 234 3657, start date 12-05-2016, end date 31-12-2017, ISE/2016/DS, Completed
WEiTI Działalność statutowa
Languageen angielski
100311F_P_W.pdf 1.16 MB
Score (nominal)35
Score sourcejournalList
ScoreMinisterial score = 35.0, 18-08-2020, ArticleFromJournal
Ministerial score (2013-2016) = 35.0, 18-08-2020, ArticleFromJournal
Publication indicators WoS Citations = 10; Scopus Citations = 14; GS Citations = 14.0; Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2016 = 1.921; WoS Impact Factor: 2016 = 2.407 (2) - 2016=2.918 (5)
Citation count*14 (2020-08-20)
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* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.
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