The effect of anodizing potential and annealing conditions on the morphology, composition and photoelectrochemical activity of porous anodic tin oxide films

Leszek Zaraska , Karolina Gawlak , Ewelina Wiercigroch , K Malek , Marcin Kozieł , Mariusz Andrzejczuk , Mateusz Marzec , Magdalena Jarosz , Agnieszka Brzózka , Grzegorz D. Sulka


In this work, the effect of the thermal annealing on the composition of crack-free anodic tin oxide layers with different channel diameters, formed in 1M NaOH at 2 and 4 V, was investigated in detail. STEM tomography confirmed that anodic oxides formed at 2 V have narrower channels, higher porosity, and higher surface area than those anodized at 4 V. Structural properties of oxides films were studied using different techniques such as X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. In addition, Raman imaging was employed to study local changes in the composition of anodic films. The photoelectrochemical performance of as-formed and annealed oxides was correlated with applied anodizing potential and annealing conditions. It was found that as-formed anodic oxides are composed of poorly crystalline SnO2-x with a significant amount of Sn2þ defects. When the oxide layers were annealed at 200 C, crystallization of the SnO phase was observed, however, the amount of Sn2þ defects was not drastically reduced. A significant reduction of Sn2þ defects occurred at 400 C due to a formation of intermediate Sn3O4 oxide and, in the final result, more stoichiometric and crystalline SnO2 was formed. We proved that appropriate design of anodizing and annealing procedures can lead to the formation of nanoporous tin oxide layers with controlled morphology, composition and, in consequence, photoelectrochemical properties.
Author Leszek Zaraska
Leszek Zaraska,,
, Karolina Gawlak
Karolina Gawlak,,
, Ewelina Wiercigroch
Ewelina Wiercigroch,,
, K Malek
K Malek,,
, Marcin Kozieł
Marcin Kozieł,,
, Mariusz Andrzejczuk (FMSE / DMD)
Mariusz Andrzejczuk,,
- Division of Materials Design
, Mateusz Marzec (FP)
Mateusz Marzec,,
- Faculty of Physics
, Magdalena Jarosz
Magdalena Jarosz,,
, Agnieszka Brzózka
Agnieszka Brzózka,,
, Grzegorz D. Sulka
Grzegorz D. Sulka,,
Journal seriesElectrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, e-ISSN 1873-3859, (N/A 100 pkt)
Issue year2019
Publication size in sheets0.6
Keywords in EnglishTin oxide, Anodization, Annealing, Raman imaging, Photoelectrochemical properties
ASJC Classification1500 General Chemical Engineering; 1603 Electrochemistry
Languageen angielski
1-s2.0-S0013468619312563-main.pdf 4.25 MB
Score (nominal)100
Score sourcejournalList
ScoreMinisterial score = 100.0, 03-01-2020, ArticleFromJournal
Publication indicators WoS Citations = 0; Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2018 = 1.081; WoS Impact Factor: 2018 = 5.383 (2) - 2018=4.94 (5)
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