Patient specific implants for jawbone reconstruction after tumor resection
Roman Major , Piotr Kowalczyk , Marcin Surmiak , Ilona Łojszczyk , Rafał Kamil Podgórski , Paulina Anna Trzaskowska , Tomasz Ciach , Guenter Russmueller , Katarzyna Kasperkiewicz , Major Łukasz , Robert Jabłoński , Jacek Kropiwnicki , Juergen M. Lackner
AbstractIn case of benign and malignant tumours affecting the maxillofacial region, the resection of jawbone reflects the standard therapy in more than 5.000 cases per year within the European Union. The resulting large bone defects lead to scarred, mangled facial appearance, loss of mastication and probably speech, requiring aesthetic and functional surgery as a basis for physical and physiological rehabilitation. Although autologous vascularized bone autografts reflect the current golden standard, the portion of bone available for the procedure is limited and subsequent high-dose anti-cancer chemo-/radiotherapy can lead to local tissue necrosis. Autologous vascularized bone from fibular or iliac-crest autografts is current golden standard in jawbone resection post-treatment, however, the portion of transplantable bone is limited and subsequent high-dose anti-cancer chemo-/radiotherapy often results in tissue necrosis Our research focuses on alternative treatment techniques: tissue reconstruction via novel patient-specifically manufactured maxillofacial implant that stimulates bone tissue growth. The planned neoformation of vascularized bone in such implants within the patient’s own body as “bioreactor” is the safest approach in tissue engineering. The works described herein included the design of the metallic substrate of the implant with the use of computed tomography basing on real patients scans and then 3D-printing the substrates from the Ti6Al7Nb powder. The metal core was then evaluated in terms of structural characteristic, cytotoxicity and gene expression through the in vitro tests. Further experiments were focused on fabrication of the biocompatible coating for outer surface of the bone implant that would enhance the healing process and accelerate the tissue growth. Functional polymeric granulate dedicated for osteoconductive, osteoinductive and osteogenesis properties were elaborated. Another approach including the coating for the implant surface with two-phase biocompatible layer including polymeric microspheres and hydrogel carrier, which would provide long-time release of bone and cartilage growth factors around the implant were also done. The polymeric granulate containing βTCP improved bone cells growth, but it some modification has to be done in order to improve structural pores to ensure for better osteoconductivity. The biocompatible coating including PVP hydrogel and polymeric microspheres is still in the development process.
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