Bacterial community dynamics in spontaneous sourdoughs made from wheat, spelt, and rye wholemeal flour

Jakub Boreczek , Dorota Litwinek , Joanna Żylińska-Urban , Dariusz Izak , Krzysztof Buksa , Jan Gawor , Robert Gromadka , Jacek Bardowski , Magdalena Kowalczyk


Sourdough fermentation is a traditional process that is used to improve bread quality. A spontaneous sourdough ecosystem consists of a mixture of flour and water that is fermented by endogenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts. The aim of this study was to identify bacterial diversity during backslopping of spontaneous sourdoughs prepared from wheat, spelt, or rye wholemeal flour. Culture-dependent analyses showed that the number of LAB (109 CFU/ml) was higher by three orders of magnitude than the number of yeasts (106 CFU/ml), irrespective of the flour type. These results were complemented by next-generation sequencing of the 16S rDNA V3 and V4 variable regions. The dominant phylum in all sourdough samples was Firmicutes, which was represented exclusively by the Lactobacillales order. The two remaining and less abundant phyla were Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The culture-independent approach allowed us to detect changes in microbial ecology during the 72-hr fermentation period. Weissella sp. was the most abundant genus after 24 hr of fermentation of the rye sourdough, but as the process progressed, its abundance decreased in favor of the Lactobacillus genus similarly as in wheat and spelt sourdoughs. The Lactobacillus genus was dominant in all sourdoughs after 72 hr, which was consistent with our results obtained using culture-dependent analyses. This work was carried out to determine the microbial biodiversity of sourdoughs that are made from wheat, spelt, and rye wholemeal flour and can be used as a source of strains for specific starter cultures to produce functional bread.
Author Jakub Boreczek
Jakub Boreczek,,
, Dorota Litwinek
Dorota Litwinek,,
, Joanna Żylińska-Urban (FC / CDSB)
Joanna Żylińska-Urban,,
- Chair of Drug and Cosmetics Biotechnology
, Dariusz Izak
Dariusz Izak,,
, Krzysztof Buksa
Krzysztof Buksa,,
, Jan Gawor
Jan Gawor,,
, Robert Gromadka
Robert Gromadka,,
, Jacek Bardowski
Jacek Bardowski,,
, Magdalena Kowalczyk
Magdalena Kowalczyk,,
Journal seriesMicrobiologyOpen, ISSN 2045-8827
Issue year2020
Publication size in sheets0.6
Keywords in Englishbacterial community dynamics, biodiversity, bread, lactic acid bacteria, sourdough, wholemeal flour
ASJC Classification2404 Microbiology
Languageen angielski
wdpb_publikacje_pliki_plik_publikacja_3946_org.pdf 1.4 MB
Score (nominal)70
Score sourcejournalList
ScoreMinisterial score = 70.0, 01-07-2020, ArticleFromJournal
Publication indicators Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2016 = 0.853; WoS Impact Factor: 2018 = 2.738 (2) - 2018=2.838 (5)
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