Comparison of copper and zinc in vitro bioaccessibility from cyanobacteria rich in proteins and a synthetic supplement containing gluconate complexes: LC–MS mapping of bioaccessible copper complexes
Justyna Wojcieszek , Katarzyna Witkoś , Lena Ruzik , Katarzyna Pawlak
AbstractAn analytical procedure was proposed to estimate bioaccessibility of copper and zinc in Spirulina Pacifica tablets with respect to that of copper and zinc in gluconate complexes. Spirulina is the common name for diet supplements produced primarily from two species of cyanobacteria, namely Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima. Spirulina tablets are an excellent source of proteins, vitamins and minerals. To obtain information about the bioavailability of these elements, an in vitro bioaccessibility test was performed by application of a two-step protocol which simulated the gastric (pepsin) and intestinal (pancreatin) digestion. The species obtained were investigated by size exclusion chromatography on a chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer with inductively coupled plasma (SEC–ICP–MS) and an on-capillary liquid chromatograph coupled to an electrospray mass spectrometer (μ-HPLC–ESI–MS). Both copper and zinc were found to be highly bioaccessible in Spirulina tablets (90–111 %) and those containing gluconate complexes (103 % for Cu and 62 % for Zn). In Spirulina tablets, copper was found to form two types of complex: (1) polar ones with glycine and aspartic acid and (2) more hydrophobic ones containing amino acids with cyclic hydrocarbons (phenylalanine, histidine, proline and tyrosine). Zinc and copper were also proved to form complexes during the digestion process with products of pepsin digestion, but the stability of these complexes is lower than that of the complexes formed in Spirulina. The results proving the involvement of proteins in the enhancement of copper and zinc bioaccessibility will be useful for the design of new copper and zinc supplements.
|Journal series||Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642 [1618-2650, 0937-0633]|
|Publication size in sheets||0.5|
|Keywords in English||Spirulina ; Inductively coupled plasma ; mass Spectrometry ; Capillary liquid chromatography ; electrospray mass spectrometry ; Bioaccessibility ; Copper complexes ; Pepsin peptide map|
|Score|| = 35.0, 28-11-2017, ArticleFromJournal|
= 40.0, 28-11-2017, ArticleFromJournal
|Publication indicators||: 2016 = 3.431 (2) - 2016=3.306 (5)|
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