Flow visualization and 1- and 3-D laser-Doppler-anemometer measurements in models of human carotid arteries
Dieter Liepsh , G. Pflugbeil , T. Matsuo , Beata Leśniak-Plewińska
AbstractPulsatile flow, wall distensibility, non-Newtonian flow characteristics of blood in flow separation regions, and high/low blood pressure were studied in elastic silicon rubber models having a compliance similar to human vessels and the same surface structure as the biological intima models of (1) a healthy carotid artery model, (2) a 90% stenosis in the ICA, and (3) 80% stenosis in both the internal and external carotid arteries. Flow was visualized for steady flow and pulsatile studies to localize flow separation regions and reattachment points. Local velocity was measured with a 1-, 2-, or 3-D laser-Doppler-anemometer (LDA). Flow in the unstenosed model was Re = 250. In the stenosed models, the Re number decreased to Re = 180 and 213 under the same experimental conditions. High velocity fluctuations with vortices were found in the stenosed models. The jet flow in the stenosis increased up to 4 m/s. With an increasing bifurcation angle, the separation regions in the ECA and ICA increased. Increased flow (Re = 350) led to an increase in flow separation and high velocity shear gradients. The highest shear stresses were nearly 20 times higher than normal. The 90% stenosis created high velocity shear gradients and velocity fluctuations. Downstream of the stenoses, eddies were found over the whole cross-section. In the healthy model a slight flow separation region was observed in the ICA at the branching cross-section whereas in the stenosed models, the flow separation regions extended far into the ICA. We conclude that a detailed understanding of flow is necessary before vascular surgery is performed especially before artificial grafts or patches are implanted.
|Journal series||Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, ISSN 1386-0291|
|Keywords in English||HUMAN AORTIC BIFURCATION; WALL SHEAR-STRESS; PULSATILE FLOW; VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION; INTIMAL THICKNESS; ELASTIC MODEL; STEADY FLOW|
|Publication indicators||: 2006 = 1.242 (2) - 2007=1.011 (5)|
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