Carbide formation in tungsten-containing amorphous carbon films by annealing
M. Balden , P. A. Sauter , S. Jong , C. Adelhelm , S. Lindig , Marcin Rasiński , Tomasz Płociński
AbstractTungsten-containing amorphous carbon films were produced by dual magnetron sputter deposition. The formation of carbide phases after heat treatment in inert gas at temperatures up to 2800 K was investigated by X-ray diffraction for tungsten concentrations below 25 at.%. After deposition, each film consists of an amorphous carbon matrix with atomically dispersed W inclusions. Annealing up to 2800 K leads to a formation of carbide phases and to nano clustering. Three tungsten carbide phases were observed (WC, W2C, and WC 1 - x), mostly as mixtures of two phases. The phase combination depends on annealing temperature and W concentration. Additionally, nano diffraction was performed in a scanning transmission electron microscope, to determine the phase of single crystallites at scales, where X-ray diffraction fails. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
|Journal series||Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090|
|Pages||4049 - 4053|
|Publication size in sheets||0.5|
|Keywords in English||Carbon-based amorphous films; Chemical reactions; Plasma-materials interaction|
|Publication indicators||: 2011 = 1.89 (2) - 2011=2.014 (5)|
|Citation count*||8 (2018-06-17)|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.