Aspects of balanced development of RES and distributed micro-cogeneration use in Poland: Case study of a μcHP with Stirling engine
Adrian Chmielewski , Robert Gumiński , Jędrzej Mączak , Stanisław Radkowski , Przemysław Szulim
Distributed generation of electric energy in decentralized systems plays an increasingly vital role in Europe. This constitutes a challenge in the development of new technologies with the balanced use of energy from renewable sources and cogeneration systems. In view of the year 2020 as well as 2030, Poland as a member of the European Union must fulfil the requirements regarding climate protection. In the first part of this article the support programmes for distributed cogeneration and renewable energy sources (RES) in Poland have been presented, which are conducted by the National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management (NFEP&WM), as well as the legal measures included in the RES Act of 20 February 2015. In the subsequent part of the work the possibilities of employing distributed micro-cogeneration as a technology to reduce the peak and flatten the curve of daily and seasonal power demand from the Polish Power System have been shown and analysed. Possibilities of adequate Demand Side Management (DSM) and of consumer's self-adjustment to the market, induced by the appropriate energy policy, have been presented. The energy policy takes into consideration micro-cogeneration as an element of more effective use of electric energy from electric power network, illustrated by the example of households. In the second part of this work the authors presented the test results of the μCHP with the Stirling engine for the most frequently used working gases: helium, nitrogen, air, and argon. The values of micro-cogeneration system efficiency, obtained in the course of the tests, have been presented for the chosen values of working gas. The influence of the heat source temperature on the performance of the micro-cogeneration system, the curve of the maximal power in the function of pressure, as well as the speed characteristics have been shown.
|Journal series||Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, ISSN 1364-0321|
|Score|| = 45.0, 18-03-2020, ArticleFromJournal|
= 45.0, 18-03-2020, ArticleFromJournal
|Publication indicators||= 40; = 38; : 2016 = 3.501; : 2016 = 8.05 (2) - 2016=9.122 (5)|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.