Nanocrystalline lithium–manganese oxide spinels for Li-ion batteries — Sol-gel synthesis and characterization of their structure and selected physical properties

M Michalska , L. Lipińska , M Mirkowska , M. Aksienionek , R Diduszko , Marek Wasiucionek

Abstract

Nanocrystalline lithium–manganese oxide spinels were synthesized by a modified sol-gel method. Simple salts of lithium, manganese and iron were used as starting reagents and citric acid as a complexing agent. The gelled materials turned into nanopowders after the calcination was carried out in air in the 450–700 °C temperature range. The combined DSC-TGA measurements have shown important stages of the syntheses. They also enabled to find optimum calcination temperatures. Microstructure of all synthesized materials, as investigated by SEM, contains relatively large grains (over 100 nm), which are agglomerates of much smaller crystallites. X-ray diffraction (XRD) has shown that the final powders are single-phased, with a lattice parameter a varying from 8.16 to 8.25 Å, depending on the material. The average crystallite size, as estimated from broadening of XRD reflections by a Scherrer formula, is about 30 nm. Electrical conductivity depends on temperature according to an Arrhenius equation with the activation energy of 0.30 eV.
Author M Michalska
M Michalska,,
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, L. Lipińska
L. Lipińska,,
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, M Mirkowska
M Mirkowska,,
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, M. Aksienionek
M. Aksienionek,,
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, R Diduszko
R Diduszko,,
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, Marek Wasiucionek ZJCS
Marek Wasiucionek,,
- Solid State Ionics Division
Journal seriesSolid State Ionics, ISSN 0167-2738
Issue year2011
Vol188
No1
Pages160-164
Keywords in EnglishLiMn2O4, lithium manganese oxide spinel, Nanocrystalline cathode, Sol-gel method
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.ssi.2010.12.003
URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167273810006685
Score (nominal)35
Publication indicators WoS Impact Factor: 2011 = 2.646 (2) - 2011=3.097 (5)
Citation count*29 (2015-12-05)
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* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.
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