Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Mold with Embedded Carbon Fiber Resistor Heater - Case Study

Piotr Czarnocki , Anna Boczkowska , Wojciech Frączek , Paulina Kozera , Michał Kubiś , Jędrzej Marjanowski , Mikke Rafał


The article presents a complete description of the design and manufacturing of a Carbon Fiber/epoxy mold with an embedded Carbon Fiber resistor heater, and the mold performances in terms of its surface temperature distribution and thermal deformations resulting from the heating. The mold was designed for manufacturing aileron skins from Vacuum Bag Only prepreg cured at 135°C. The glass transition temperature of the used resin-hardener system was about 175°C. To ensure homogenous temperature of the mold working surface in the course of curing, the Carbon Fiber heater was embedded in a layer of a highly heat-conductive cristobalite/epoxy composite, forming the core of the mold shell. Because the cristobalite/epoxy composite displayed much higher thermal expansion than CF/epoxy did, thermal stresses could arise due to this discrepancy in the course of heating. Therefore, to lower these stresses, the Carbon Fiber/epoxy faces were separated from the cristobalite/epoxy core containing the heating element by the buffer layer of carbon nanotubes/epoxy displaying intermediate thermal expansion. The determined mold surface thermal deformation was in the range of 1 mm in 20°C-135°C temperature range and, at 135°C, the mold surface temperature unevenness was in the range of 10°C. Despite such temperature unevenness, the Tg values determined with the help of the specimens cut out from the different parts of the cured skin were of satisfactory values.
Author Piotr Czarnocki (FPAE / IAAM)
Piotr Czarnocki,,
- The Institute of Aeronautics and Applied Mechanics
, Anna Boczkowska (FMSE / DSMP)
Anna Boczkowska,,
- Division of Ceramic Materials and Polymers
, Wojciech Frączek (FPAE / IAAM)
Wojciech Frączek,,
- The Institute of Aeronautics and Applied Mechanics
, Paulina Kozera (FMSE / DSMP)
Paulina Kozera,,
- Division of Ceramic Materials and Polymers
, Michał Kubiś (FPAE / IHE)
Michał Kubiś,,
- The Institute of Heat Engineering
, Jędrzej Marjanowski (FPAE / IAAM)
Jędrzej Marjanowski,,
- The Institute of Aeronautics and Applied Mechanics
, Mikke Rafał
Mikke Rafał,,
Journal seriesSAE International Journal of Materials & Manufacturing, ISSN 1946-3979, e-ISSN 1946-3987, (0 pkt)
Issue year2018
Publication size in sheets0.5
Keywords in EnglishLaminates, self heated molds, deformations
ASJC Classification2209 Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering; 2210 Mechanical Engineering; 2211 Mechanics of Materials
Languageen angielski
Score (nominal)15
Score sourcejournalIndex
ScoreMinisterial score = 15.0, 20-10-2019, ArticleFromJournal
Publication indicators WoS Citations = 0; Scopus Citations = 0; Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2017 = 0.853
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