Determination and analysis of PM 10 source apportionment during episodes of air pollution in Central Eastern European urban areas: The case of wintertime 2006
Katarzyna Juda-Rezler , Magdalena Reizer , Jean-Paul Oudinet
AbstractSource apportionment of air pollution due to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter \<10 μm (PM10) was investigated in Central Eastern European urban areas. A combination of four methods was developed to distinguish long-range transport (LRT) and regional transport (RT) from local pollution (LP) sources as well as to discern the involvement of traffic or residential sources in LP. Sources of PM10 events of pollution were determined in January 2006 in representative Polish cities using monitored air quality and meteorological data, backward air mass trajectories, correlation and principal component analysis (PCA). Daily patterns of PM10 levels show that several peak episodes were registered in Poland; January 21–30th being the most polluted days. Air mass back-trajectory analysis shows that all cities were under the influence of LRT from North-eastern origins (Russia–Belarus–Ukraine), most were also under LRT from Southern origin (Slovakia, Czech Republic), and northern cities were under national RT influence. PCA analysis shows that ion-sums of secondary inorganic aerosols account for LRT pollution while arsenic and chromium represents markers of RT (industrial) and LP (residential) sources of PM10, respectively. Determination of several ratios (REG/UB, REG/TRAF, TRAF/UB) calculated between PM10 levels measured at regional background (REG); urban background (UB) and traffic (TRAF) monitoring sites shows that, with ratios REG/UB ≥ 0.57, PM10 episodes in both Szczecin and Warsaw bore a marked RT origin. The lower REG/UB ≤ 0.35 in the Southern cities of Cracow and Zabrze indicates that LP was the main contributor to the observed episodes. Only PM10 episodes in Southern-western Poland (Jelenia Góra) were clearly of LP origin as characterized, by the lowest REG/UB ratio (\<0.2). The high TRAF/UB ratios obtained for all cities (close to 1) indicate that there was a great uniformity of PM levels on an urban scale owing to the meteorologically stagnant conditions. A high correlation between PM10, NO2 and CO confirms that traffic emission represented a common and an important LP source of urban pollution in most Polish cities during January 2006. On the other hand PM10 which is also highly correlated with SO2 in 4 cities out of 6, indicates that coal combustion through domestic heating or industrial activities was also an important LP source of PM10. Finally, extremely unfavourable meteorological conditions caused by the influence of a Siberian high-pressure system were found to be associated with the occurrence of severe PM10 episodes of pollution.
|Journal series||Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, (A 40 pkt)|
|Keywords in English||Backward trajectories, PM10, Poland, Source apportionment, Trace metals, Urban particulate air pollution|
|Publication indicators||= 90; = 51.0; : 2011 = 1.779; : 2011 = 3.465 (2) - 2011=3.742 (5)|
|Citation count*||51 (2015-01-23)|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.