Thermodynamic and relativistic aspects of thermal inertia in fluids

Stanisław Sieniutycz

Abstract

We present a generalized relativistic Lagrangian which yields the effect of heat flux q and nonequilibrium stress τ in the energy-momentum tensor of an extended reversible fluid exhibiting thermal inertia. The actual momentum of heat (thermal momentum related to the entropy flow) follows to be many orders of magnitude larger than q/c2 (c is the light speed) but it is consistent with Grad’s kinetic theory [in Principles of the Theory of Gases, edited by S. Flugge, Handbüch der Physik Vol. 12 (Springer, Berlin, 1958)] and with experiments in heat conduction. On the other hand, the net momentum of heat remains q/c2, in agreement with the standard relativistic result, this net momentum being the result of incomplete compensation of the actual thermal momentum and the momentum associated with self-diffusion of particles. The classical densities of mass and entropy, ρ and ρs, cease to be natural variables of energy density E in the sense of Callen [Thermodynamics and an Introduction to Thermostatistics (Wiley, New York, 1988)] whenever inertial effects prevail. This fact necessitates the use of what may be called the thermal potential T-, a new quantity replacing the classical temperature T. Changes in thermodynamic formalism are related to the replacement of T by T-. The admission of a freely varied four-flux of entropy in an extended Hamilton principle implies all nonequilibrium corrections (q and τ) to the energy-momentum tensor, making it possible to investigate the effect of nonequilibrium phenomena on the properties of associated gravitational fields.
Author Stanisław Sieniutycz ZPR
Stanisław Sieniutycz,,
- Department of Separation Processes
Journal seriesPhysical Review E, ISSN 1539-3755
Issue year1998
Vol58
No6
Pages7027-7039
Publication size in sheets0.6
DOIDOI:10.1103/PhysRevE.58.7027
URL http://journals.aps.org/pre/pdf/10.1103/PhysRevE.58.7027
Languageen angielski
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Sieniutycz S. - Thermodynamic and relativistic....pdf 261.33 KB
Score (nominal)35
Publication indicators WoS Impact Factor: 2006 = 2.438 (2) - 2007=2.484 (5)
Citation count*11 (2015-02-24)
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