Implementation of acoustic, radiofrequency and microwave rotating fields in analytical plasma sources
Krzysztof Jankowski , Andrzej P. Ramsza , Edward Reszke
AbstractFour helium plasma sources operating at atmospheric pressure have been developed for analytical emission spectrometry by applying a synchronically rotating field with three or more phases operating at 1 kHz, 27 MHz or 2.45 GHz. The plasma takes the form of a disk and has minimum field strength at the axis. Thus, a channel is formed at the center through which the sample in the form of wet aerosol or a chemically generated vapor of halogen may be introduced. A dual-flow concentric ceramic injector was used to supply helium plasma gas and the sample to the plasma. The helium plasma operated at low power levels (40–300 W) and low gas flow rates of below 3 L min− 1 and was self-igniting. The acoustic, radio-frequency (rf) and microwave-driven plasmas can withstand wet aerosol loadings of 5, 30 and 100 mg min− 1, respectively, generated by an ultrasonic nebulizer without a desolvation unit. The plasma physical characteristics were compared at these three frequencies under otherwise similar operating conditions. The helium excitation temperature, OH rotational temperature and electron number density increased with increasing frequency in ranges of 2800–4000 K, 1100–3200 K and 0.1–7 × 1014 cm− 3, respectively. To demonstrate the effect of frequency on the plasma excitation efficiency the emission intensity from halogen ions was evaluated using chemical vapor generation with continuous sampling without desiccation. Using 3-phase microwave, 6-phase microwave, 4-phase rf and 1 kHz helium plasma sources the detection limits (3σ) for chlorine at 479.40 nm were 26, 60, 230 and 1200 ng mL− 1, respectively. The microwave-driven plasma was the densest and had the highest excitation potential toward chlorine and bromine ions.
|Journal series||Spectrochimica Acta Part B-Atomic Spectroscopy, ISSN 0584-8547|
|Keywords in English||Helium plasma, Optical emission spectrometry, Rotating field|
|Publication indicators||: 2011 = 2.876 (2) - 2011=2.74 (5)|
|Citation count*||6 (2015-03-26)|
* presented citation count is obtained through Internet information analysis and it is close to the number calculated by the Publish or Perish system.