Virulence factors in Candida species

Monika Staniszewska

Abstract

Fungal diseases are severe and carry a very high morbidity as well as up to 60% mortality for patients diagnosed with invasive fungal infection. In this review, the in vitro and in vivo studies provided us with the insight into the role of Candida virulence factors that mediate their success as pathogens, such as: membrane and cell wall (CW) barriers, dimorphism, biofilm formation, signal transduction pathway, proteins related to stress tolerance, hydrolytic enzymes (e.g., proteases, lipases, haemolysins), and toxin production. The review characterized the virulence of clinically important C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C. krusei. Due to the white-opaque transition in the mating type locus MTL-homozygous cells, C. albicans demonstrates advantage over the other less related species of Candida as a human commensal and pathogen. It was reviewed that Candida ergosterol biosynthesis genes play a role in cellular stress and are essential for Candida pathogenesis both in invasive and superficial infections. Hydrolases associated with CW are involved in the host-pathogen interactions. Adhesins are crucial in colonization and biofilm formation, an important virulence factor for candidiasis. Calcineurin is involved in membrane and CW stress as well as virulence. The hyphae- specific toxin, named candidalysin, invades mucosal cells facilitating fungal invasion into deeper tissues. Expression of this protein promotes resistance to neutrophil killing in candidiasis. The virulence factors provide immunostimulatory factors, activating dendric cells and promoting T cell infiltration and activation. Targeting virulence factors can reduce risk of resistance development in Candida infections.
Author Monika Staniszewska (FC / CDSB)
Monika Staniszewska,,
- Chair of Drug and Cosmetics Biotechnology
Journal seriesCurrent Protein & Peptide Science, [Current Protein and Peptide Science], ISSN 1389-2037, e-ISSN 1875-5550
Issue year2020
Vol21
Pages313-323
Publication size in sheets0.5
Keywords in EnglishCandida, pathogenicity, virulence targets, surface barriers, biofilm, morphogenesis, toxin, stress regulator
ASJC Classification2700 General Medicine; 1303 Biochemistry; 1307 Cell Biology; 1312 Molecular Biology
DOIDOI:10.2174/1389203720666190722152415
URL https://www.eurekaselect.com/173711/article
Languageen angielski
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wdpb_publikacje_pliki_plik_publikacja_3961_org.pdf 264.17 KB
Score (nominal)70
Score sourcejournalList
ScoreMinisterial score = 70.0, 01-07-2020, ArticleFromJournal
Publication indicators WoS Citations = 1; Scopus Citations = 2; Scopus SNIP (Source Normalised Impact per Paper): 2018 = 0.468; WoS Impact Factor: 2018 = 1.885 (2) - 2018=2.376 (5)
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